Please keep in mind, this information is only a small portion of the information presented by Dr. German. I highly recommend you look into her work on word finding deficits and if you have a chance to hear her speak, to do so as it will be worth your while.
Dr. German suggests you can use both formal and informal assessment measures to analyze error patterns. If you are interested in a formal standardized test, you may want to look into the Test of Adolescent/Adult Word Finding-Second Edition (TAWF-2).
However, if you are also interested in informally assessing word finding skills Dr. German recommends analysis of the following:
1. Target Word Comprehension: does the child/adult understand the concept of the target word? (comprehension can be demonstrated receptively or expressively by pointing or labeling pictures)
2. Delayed Response Time: any word retrieval that is >3 secs. is considered an error (regardless of whether the word retrieved was correct).
3. Responsiveness to Phonological Cues: determine if the child is responsive and can retrieve the word with a phonological cue (either initial sound or syllable). If word is retrieved it is still considered in error but this information will provide diagnostic information regarding the type of error pattern that exists.
4. Ability to Imitate Segmented Word: if the child/adult could not retrieve the word but could imitate the word segmented into syllables, this suggests it is more likely a word finding deficit rather than a motor planning issue.
5. Nature and Target of Substitutions: nature of the substitutions used will lead you to determine the type of error pattern (EP) (e.g. semantic substitutions-EP 1, withdrawal/refusal (IDK)-EP 2, phonological substitution-EP 3).
6. Manifestation of secondary characteristics: determining if secondary characteristics exists and what types are used will help also determine the type of EP the child/adult exhibits.
Note: Knowing the word finding EP exhibited will guide our treatment in the strategies we will use as well as the types of curriculum terms/words we will practice with out students.
Goal: a) help the child with automatic retrieval of curricular vocabulary, b) decrease word finding behaviors (to typical range ~19% of the time) using strategies.
Error Pattern 1:
Teach: EF Strategies: 1) self-monitoring, 2) self-correcting, 3) strategic pauses (i.e. pauses before content words, before the noun in a noun phrase, before the object in a prepositional phrase, etc.)
Choose to target: high frequency words, that are short and have more common phonological patterns or combinations, such as words with large word families (Dr. German labels them as words "in dense neighborhoods"). For example words like "fan, man, pan, Stan, can, tan" is considered a "dense neighborhood".
Error Pattern 2:
Teach: 1) word meaning and metalinguistic reinforcement (number of syllables in word, etc.), 2) phonological mnemonic cues, 3) rehearsal of targeted word in isolation, phrases, sentences and discourse
Phonological Mnemonic Cue: you are going to allow the child to come up with a familiar phrase with the 1st syllable of the word being the phonological cue in order to recall the word. Example provided during the presentation was a boy trying to recall the word "density" so he made a phonological mnemonic cue that meant something to him "Denver city".
Choose: less frequent, less familiar words in "sparse neighborhoods" (less common phonological combinations or fewer number of members in a word family).
Error Pattern 3:
Teach: 1) metalinguistic reinforcement, 2) phonological mnemonic cue, 3) rehearse target word (isolation, phrase, sentence, discourse)
Example of phonological mnemonic cue: for the word "paradox", the cue is "pair of socks".
Note: same techniques as EP 2
Choose: multisyllabic words, that have unfamiliar/atypical/infrequently used phonological patterns/sound combos, from "sparse neighborhoods".
Remember: for any and all error types, the goal is always to teach the child which type or types (there can be a combination) of error patterns they use AS WELL AS their strategies. The goal is not to eliminate word finding difficulties but to teach strategies so as to reduce these difficulties to those of typical peers (i.e. word finding deficits are exhibited ~19% of the time). For more information regarding this incidence, please refer to Dr. German's work.